Special considerations for treating concussions in children and adolescents

Traumatic brain injuries in children and adolescents are a problem which often goes unnoticed. When the head receives an impact, the soft tissue of the brain can collide with the bones of our skull, leading to a trauma which may temporarily affects functioning. Thus while a child may seem perfectly fine after sustaining a head injury, it is essential to take the necessary precautions.

Symptoms which may be underestimated Symptoms of brain trauma may be very subtle in children and adolescents, yet can for last several weeks and, in some cases, months. The Ontario Neurotrauma Foundation in Toronto, Canada has recently become the first institution to place special focus on traumatic brain injuries in patients aged 5 to 18 years. According to the authors of Guidelines for Pediatric Concussion, a useful guide for evaluating this type of injury, “the field of pediatric concussion is still in its infancy compared to that of general traumatic brain injury (moderate and severe).” They go on to note that  few studies have Read more

A bone is broken every three seconds somewhere in the world as a result of osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is a disease that does not normally present any type of discomfort. This is something that at first may seem favourable, but this just makes the disease go unnoticed and only come to light when the first fracture occurs or when a series of these take place. 

If we focus on the data, we will really gain a greater awareness of the importance of this disease worldwide:

Osteoporosis causes more than 8.9 million bone fractures a year. It is estimated that a total of 200 million women suffer from osteoporosis: that is approximately 1 in every 10 women aged 60 years, 1 in 5 aged 70 years, 2 out of every 5 when the age is 80, and the ratio is 3 in every 5 women who reach the age of 90. By combining the population of Europe, the USA and Japan, it is estimated that a total of 75 million people are affected by the disease.  Defining the disease that makes us fragile In 1993, the World Health Organisation (WHO) defined osteoporosis as “a systemic Read more

Cancer: its treatment and impact on our bones

Surely, all of us understand the problems that we can suffer due to a bone injury. What we may overlook is that bones are always damaged in the natural evolutionary process of a cancer, or even as a result of anti-cancer treatments.

If we focus on the most common types of cancers in the developed world –prostate and breast cancer– we will conclude that bone tissues are one of the areas in which the disease usually has a significant impact at more advanced stages.

This would explain why patients of these two types of cancers suffer bone metastasis so often. As well as being affected by this condition, added complications such as bone pain or fractures arise, which may require palliative care or surgery.  The truth is that until barely 20 years ago, there were not too many treatment options for this type of patients. It was then that the medical community envisioned that cancer cells are highly effective in transmitting signals to osteoclasts (cells that degrade, reabsorb and remodel the bones), which result in bone problems of varying degrees as the disease progresses. Therefore, when Read more